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Islam

Sections:

-JIHAD

-IS ISLAM A RELIGION?

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JIHAD:

A little background on Jihad that TCOTS readers may find useful, with a rebuttal by Steven Givler afterwards…

-From Islam 101 by Gregory Davis:

a. What does “jihad” mean?

Jihad literally translates as “struggle.” Strictly speaking, jihad does not mean “holy war” as Muslim apologists often point out. However, the question remains as to what sort of “struggle” is meant: an inner, spiritual struggle against the passions, or an outward, physical struggle.

As in any case of trying to determine Islamic teaching on a particular matter, one must look to the Quran and the Sunnah. From those sources (see above) it is evident that a Muslim is required to struggle against a variety of things: laziness in prayer, neglecting to give zakat (alms), etc. But is it also plain that a Muslim is commanded to struggle in physical combat against the infidel as well. Muhammad’s impressive military career attests to the central role that military action plays in Islam.

b. Hasan Al-Banna on jihad

Below are excerpts from Hasan Al-Banna’s treatise, Jihad. In 1928, Al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood, which today is the most powerful organization in Egypt after the government itself. In this treatise, Al-Banna cogently argues that Muslims must take up arms against unbelievers. As he says, “The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.”

All Muslims Must Make Jihad

Jihad is an obligation from Allah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded. Allah has ascribed great importance to jihad and has made the reward of the martyrs and the fighters in His way a splendid one. Only those who have acted similarly and who have modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of jihad can join them in this reward. Furthermore, Allah has specifically honoured the Mujahideen {those who wage jihad} with certain exceptional qualities, both spiritual and practical, to benefit them in this world and the next. Their pure blood is a symbol of victory in this world and the mark of success and felicity in the world to come.

Those who can only find excuses, however, have been warned of extremely dreadful punishments and Allah has described them with the most unfortunate of names. He has reprimanded them for their cowardice and lack of spirit, and castigated them for their weakness and truancy. In this world, they will be surrounded by dishonour and in the next they will be surrounded by the fire from which they shall not escape though they may possess much wealth. The weaknesses of abstention and evasion of jihad are regarded by Allah as one of the major sins, and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure.

Islam is concerned with the question of jihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the entire Umma {the global Muslim community} into one body to defend the right cause with all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living, whether religious or civil. The verses of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammad (PBUH {Peace Be Unto Him}) are overflowing with all these noble ideals and they summon people in general (with the most eloquent expression and the clearest exposition) to jihad, to warfare, to the armed forces, and all means of land and sea fighting.

Here Al-Banna offers citations from the Quran and the reliable hadiths that demonstrate the necessity of combat for Muslims. The citations are comparable to those included in Islam 101 section 1b and are here omitted.

The Scholars on Jihad

I have just presented to you some verses from the Qur’an and the Noble Ahadith concerning the importance of jihad. Now I would like to present to you some of the opinions from jurisprudence of the Islamic Schools of Thought including some latter day authorities regarding the rules of jihad and the necessity for preparedness. From this we will come to realise how far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the consensus of its scholars on the question of jihad.

The author of the ‘Majma’ al-Anhar fi Sharh Multaqal-Abhar’, in describing the rules of jihad according to the Hanafi School, said: ‘Jihad linguistically means to exert one’s utmost effort in word and action; in the Sharee’ah {Sharia — Islamic law} it is the fighting of the unbelievers, and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the power of the enemies of Islam including beating them, plundering their wealth, destroying their places of worship and smashing their idols. This means that jihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those who fight you and the dhimmies {non-Muslims living under Islamic rule} (if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the apostates (who are the worst of unbelievers, for they disbelieved after they have affirmed their belief).

It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb {House of War — the non-Muslim world} every year at least once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfill the obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. If this fard kifayah (communal obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group, then the responsibility lies with the closest adjacent group, and then the closest after that etc., and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled except by all the people, it then becomes a fard ‘ayn (individual obligation), like prayer on everyone of the people.

The scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is irrespective of whether these scholars were Mujtahideen or Muqalideen and it is irrespective of whether these scholars were salaf (early) or khalaf (late). They all agreed unanimously that jihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the Da’wah of Islam, and that jihad is a fard ‘ayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. Today, my brother, the Muslims as you know are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by disbelievers. Our lands have been besieged, and our hurruma’at (personal possessions, respect, honour, dignity and privacy) violated. Our enemies are overlooking our affairs, and the rites of our din are under their jurisdiction. Yet still the Muslims fail to fulfill the responsibility of Da’wah that is on their shoulders. Hence in this situation it becomes the duty of each and every Muslim to make jihad. He should prepare himself mentally and physically such that when comes the decision of Allah, he will be ready.

I should not finish this discussion without mentioning to you that the Muslims, throughout every period of their history (before the present period of oppression in which their dignity has been lost) have never abandoned jihad nor did they ever become negligent in its performance, not even their religious authorities, mystics, craftsmen, etc. They were all always ready and prepared. For example, Abdullah ibn al Mubarak, a very learned and pious man, was a volunteer in jihad for most of his life, and ‘Abdulwahid bin Zayd, a sufi and a devout man, was the same. And in his time, Shaqiq al Balkhi, the shaykh of the sufis encouraged his pupils towards jihad.

Associated Matters Concerning Jihad

Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one’s ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: “We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad.” They said: “What is the greater jihad?” He said: “The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one’s ego.”

This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah’s way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition: The prominent muhaddith Al Hafiz ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said in the Tasdid al-Qaws:

‘It is well known and often repeated, and was a saying of Ibrahim ibn ‘Abla.’

Al Hafiz Al Iraqi said in the Takhrij Ahadith al-Ahya':

‘Al Bayhaqi transmitted it with a weak chain of narrators on the authority of Jabir, and Al Khatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of Jabir.’

Nevertheless, even if it were a sound tradition, it would never warrant abandoning jihad or preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the disbelievers. Let it be known that this narration simply emphasises the importance of struggling against one’s ego so that Allah will be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.

Other associated matters concerning jihad include commanding the good and forbidding the evil. It is said in the Hadeeth: “One of the greatest forms of jihad is to utter a word of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler.” But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra (the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen.

Epilogue

My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.

My brothers, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. And remember brother that nothing can happen without the Will of Allah: ponder well what Allah, the Blessed, the Almighty, has said:

‘Then after the distress, He sent down security for you. Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves (as to how to save themselves, ignoring the others and the Prophet) and thought wrongly of Allah – the thought of ignorance. They said, “Have we any part in the affair?” Say you (O Muhammad): “Indeed the affair belongs wholly to Allah.” They hide within themselves what they dare not reveal to you, saying: “If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here.” Say: “Even if you had remained in your homes, those for whom death was decreed would certainly have gone forth to the place of their death: but that Allah might test what is in your hearts; and to purify that which was in your hearts (sins), and Allah is All-Knower of what is in (your) hearts.”‘ {Sura 3:154}

—†—

-Some quotes from The Koran, courtesy of Robert Spencer at Jihad Watch:

“Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” — 9:5

“And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter…” — 2:191

“They long that ye should disbelieve even as they disbelieve, that ye may be upon a level (with them). So choose not friends from them till they forsake their homes in the way of Allah; if they turn back (to enmity) then take them and kill them wherever ye find them, and choose no friend nor helper from among them…” — 4:89

“Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies…” — 8:60

“Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.” — 9:29

“Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them): thereafter (is the time for) either generosity or ransom: Until the war lays down its burdens…” — 47:4

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-Steven Givler from a comment he left at TCOTS:

I have to take issue with Gregory Davis’ translation of jihad. Arabic words are formed around 3-letter roots. Other letters are added to those roots to make new words, whose meanings are largely connected to the original root. In the case of this word, jihad, JHD is the original root, and it means effort or struggle. Adding the aliph that changes the word from JHD to JHAD changes the meaning from struggle to a new word, which specifically refers to religious struggle. If there are any doubts about the nature of that religious struggle, they are addressed directly by “Reliance of the Traveller, a Manual of Sacred Islamic Law” which is easily purchased online. (The authority and accuracy of the manual are certified by Al Azhar University and other Islamic institutions.) Anyway, the manual defines jihad as “to make war against nonbelievers.” Period. It doesn’t get much clearer than that.

—‡—‡—‡—

IS ISLAM A RELIGION?

-Steven Givler from a comment he left at TCOTS:

“Islam is not simply a religion; it is a political system, as well.”

You’re right. And to take it one step further, let me explain that the Arabic word we translate to mean “religion” actually means something very different from what we think it means.

“DIN” is the Arabic word we translate to mean “religion.” That’s a poor translation, because what the word actually means is “To borrow, take up a loan, to be a debtor, to be indebted; to owe.” Also, “debt; pecuniary obligation, liability; obligation (Islamic law) financial claim…” Way down the list, in a category of secondary meanings, we come across “to profess a religion.” (This according to the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Standard Arabic, which is the industry standard for translators.)

“Religion” then, in an Arabic context, is about legal obligation and debt. It has next to nothing to do with what westerners think of when we use the word. We think of religion as a personal relationship with our creator, which is much more a matter of conscience than a matter of law.

Since Islam is not, according to our definition of the word, a religion, so much as it is a social, political, legal structure, I don’t think Article VI applies. It’s clear the Framers were talking about religions as they understood them to be, not as overarching systems that mandate a rule for every conceivable human situation, and take the place of governments instituted by men, as does Islam.

(And no, I’m not making that up. Islam purports to offer a rule – not a suggestion, but a rule – for every situation, from hand-washing to whether you can divorce your wife by text message.)

—†—

-The Rev. David R. Graham in a comment he left at TCOTS:

The English word “religion” derives from the Latin compound re + ligare. It means bind back together that which has come apart (and is paralyzed in consequence), making it whole (meaning healthy in the sense of Latin salus, base of English salvation). The function of religion is to bind back together man and God, individually and in toto. Religion is about reuniting that which has come undone or gone asunder. Law and legalism have nothing to do with religion. In fact those useful but limited-in-value cultural creations are irreligious when taken as religion.

As Steven implies, this meaning of the English/Latin word religion is far from the meaning of the Arabic word for religion, in consequence of which Islam — or better, Mohammedanism (another story) — does not enjoy the protection or specification of religion under the US Constitution, which uses the meaning of the English word religion to specify its import and in any case does not contemplate placing those loyal to it under any law other than itself.

7 Comments leave one →
  1. Orkun permalink
    31 December 2011 @ 19:09 19:09

    Best way to understand something is to search, learn and think … deducing after all what you have accessed. Without reading muslim’s holy book (Koran) is it only passing other’s ideas and thinking they are ours?

  2. Muhammed permalink
    16 November 2012 @ 15:44 15:44

    If you don’t delete this offending article, we will issue a fatwa against you ordering your head. We will declare jihad against you evil Americans and Israel.

  3. Tughril Furghan permalink
    20 November 2012 @ 06:37 06:37

    You better learn something about Religion and Arabic first… kido

  4. Mohammad permalink
    07 January 2013 @ 05:52 05:52

    Hahahahaha, Arabic is a rich language you retard, Din = Religion, Dayn = Debt, they are obviously different in context, you writing it on Google Translate and coming up with your own retarded point of view without doing proper research and then writing an article about it on your personal scum blog is offending.. learn to control your hatred and try to do some real research about Islam.

  5. ChristianFucker permalink
    24 April 2013 @ 07:51 07:51

    I don’t have the time to waste on you bastard you know nothing about islam.

  6. Hadi permalink
    05 December 2013 @ 16:55 16:55

    sorry for my english…
    Jihad in islam is a holy war …
    it means that when your enemy attacks to your home country,you must prepare to defence them and you must try to retreat them,islam is the last and big religion,in the bernabba enjil ,the christ said that one man (ahmad-> Mohammad) will come and he will finalize the god (allah) religion ,
    you can’t say that war is always against the human rights ,because it’s silly that one religion say’s don’t attend to your enemy’s attack and sit down and lay beside your wife and let your enemy to destroy your country …

  7. Habeeb permalink
    14 July 2014 @ 23:52 23:52

    DIN=religion and DEYN=borrow something
    and ILLITRATE =people those who degrade islam here

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